VMCluster

VMCluster represents a high-available and fault-tolerant version of VictoriaMetrics database. The VMCluster CRD defines a cluster version VM.

For each VMCluster resource, the Operator creates:

  • VMStorage as StatefulSet,
  • VMSelect as StatefulSet
  • and VMInsert as deployment.

For VMStorage and VMSelect headless services are created. VMInsert is created as service with clusterIP.

There is a strict order for these objects creation and reconciliation:

  1. VMStorage is synced - the Operator waits until all its pods are ready;
  2. Then it syncs VMSelect with the same manner;
  3. VMInsert is the last object to sync.

All statefulsets are created with OnDelete update type. It allows to manually manage the rolling update process for Operator by deleting pods one by one and waiting for the ready status.

Rolling update process may be configured by the operator env variables. The most important is VM_PODWAITREADYTIMEOUT=80s - it controls how long to wait for pod’s ready status.

Specification#

You can see the full actual specification of the VMCluster resource in the API docs -> VMCluster.

If you can’t find necessary field in the specification of the custom resource, see wExtra arguments section.

Also, you can check out the examples section.

High availability#

The cluster version provides a full set of high availability features - metrics replication, node failover, horizontal scaling.

First, we recommend familiarizing yourself with the high availability tools provided by “VictoriaMetrics Cluster” itself:

VMCluster supports all listed in the above-mentioned articles parameters and features:

  • replicationFactor - the number of replicas for each metric.
  • for every component of cluster (vmstorage / vmselect / vminsert):
    • replicaCount - the number of replicas for components of cluster.
    • affinity - the affinity (the pod’s scheduling constraints) for components pods. See more details in kubernetes docs.
    • topologySpreadConstraints - controls how pods are spread across your cluster among failure-domains such as regions, zones, nodes, and other user-defined topology domains. See more details in kubernetes docs.

In addition, operator:

  • uses k8s services or vmauth for load balancing between vminsert and vmselect components,
  • uses health checks for to determine the readiness of components for work after restart,
  • allows to horizontally scale all cluster components just by changing replicaCount field.

Here is an example of a VMCluster resource with HA features:

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: example-vmcluster-persistent
spec:
  replicationFactor: 2       
  vmstorage:
    replicaCount: 10
    storageDataPath: "/vm-data"
    affinity:
      podAntiAffinity:
        requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
        - labelSelector:
            matchExpressions:
            - key: "app.kubernetes.io/name"
              operator: In
              values:
              - "vmstorage"
          topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
    storage:
      volumeClaimTemplate:
        spec:
          resources:
            requests:
              storage: 10Gi
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: "2"
        memory: 2048Mi
  vmselect:
    replicaCount: 3
    cacheMountPath: "/select-cache"
    affinity:
      podAntiAffinity:
        requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
        - labelSelector:
            matchExpressions:
            - key: "app.kubernetes.io/name"
              operator: In
              values:
              - "vmselect"
          topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
    storage:
      volumeClaimTemplate:
        spec:
          resources:
            requests:
              storage: 2Gi
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: "1"
        memory: "500Mi"
  vminsert:
    replicaCount: 4
    affinity:
      podAntiAffinity:
        requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
        - labelSelector:
            matchExpressions:
            - key: "app.kubernetes.io/name"
              operator: In
              values:
              - "vminsert"
          topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: "1"
        memory: "500Mi"

Version management#

For VMCluster you can specify tag name from releases and repository setting per cluster object:

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: example-vmcluster
spec:
  vmstorage:
    replicaCount: 2
    image:
      repository: victoriametrics/vmstorage
      tag: v1.93.4-cluster
      pullPolicy: Always
  vmselect:
    replicaCount: 2
    image:
      repository: victoriametrics/vmselect
      tag: v1.93.4-cluster
      pullPolicy: Always
  vminsert:
    replicaCount: 2
    image:
      repository: victoriametrics/vminsert
      tag: v1.93.4-cluster
      pullPolicy: Always

Also, you can specify imagePullSecrets if you are pulling images from private repo, but imagePullSecrets is global setting for all VMCluster specification:

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: example-vmcluster
spec:
  vmstorage:
    replicaCount: 2
    image:
      repository: victoriametrics/vmstorage
      tag: v1.93.4-cluster
      pullPolicy: Always
  vmselect:
    replicaCount: 2
    image:
      repository: victoriametrics/vmselect
      tag: v1.93.4-cluster
      pullPolicy: Always
  vminsert:
    replicaCount: 2
    image:
      repository: victoriametrics/vminsert
      tag: v1.93.4-cluster
      pullPolicy: Always
  imagePullSecrets:
    - name: my-repo-secret
  # ...

Resource management#

You can specify resources for each component of VMCluster resource in the spec section of the VMCluster CRD.

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-resources-example
spec:
    # ...
    vmstorage:
      resources:
          requests:
            memory: "16Gi"
            cpu: "4"
          limits:
            memory: "16Gi"
            cpu: "4"
    # ...
    vmselect:
      resources:
        requests:
          memory: "16Gi"
          cpu: "4"
        limits:
          memory: "16Gi"
          cpu: "4"
    # ...
    vminsert:
      resources:
        requests:
          memory: "16Gi"
          cpu: "4"
        limits:
          memory: "16Gi"
          cpu: "4"
  # ...

If these parameters are not specified, then, by default all VMCluster pods have resource requests and limits from the default values of the following operator parameters:

  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSTORAGEDEFAULT_RESOURCE_LIMIT_MEM - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmstorage pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSTORAGEDEFAULT_RESOURCE_LIMIT_CPU - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmstorage pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSTORAGEDEFAULT_RESOURCE_REQUEST_MEM - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmstorage pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSTORAGEDEFAULT_RESOURCE_REQUEST_CPU - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmstorage pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSELECTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_LIMIT_MEM - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSELECTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_LIMIT_CPU - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSELECTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_REQUEST_MEM - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMSELECTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_REQUEST_CPU - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMINSERTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_LIMIT_MEM - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMINSERTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_LIMIT_CPU - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMINSERTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_REQUEST_MEM - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods,
  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_VMINSERTDEFAULT_RESOURCE_REQUEST_CPU - default memory limit for VMCluster/vmselect pods.

These default parameters will be used if:

  • VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_USEDEFAULTRESOURCES is set to true (default value),
  • VMCluster/* CR doesn’t have resources field in spec section.

Field resources in VMCluster/* spec have higher priority than operator parameters.

If you set VM_VMCLUSTERDEFAULT_USEDEFAULTRESOURCES to false and don’t specify resources in VMCluster/* CRD, then VMCluste/*r pods will be created without resource requests and limits.

Also, you can specify requests without limits - in this case default values for limits will not be used.

Enterprise features#

VMCluster supports following features from VictoriaMetrics Enterprise:

VMCluster doesn’t support yet feature Automatic discovery for vmstorage nodes.

For using Enterprise version of vmcluster you need to change version of VMCluster to version with -enterprise suffix using Version management.

All the enterprise apps require -eula command-line flag to be passed to them. This flag acknowledges that your usage fits one of the cases listed on this page. So you can use wextraArgs for passing this flag to VMCluster.

Downsampling#

After that you can pass Downsampling flag to VMCluster/vmselect and VMCluster/vmstorage with wextraArgs too.

Here are complete example for Downsampling:

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-ent-example
spec:
  
  vmselect:
    # enabling enterprise features for vmselect
    image:
      # enterprise version of vmselect
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmselect enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true
      
      # using enterprise features: Downsampling
      # more details about downsampling you can read on https://docs.victoriametrics.com/Cluster-VictoriaMetrics.html#downsampling
      downsampling.period: 30d:5m,180d:1h,1y:6h,2y:1d
      
  vmstorage:
    # enabling enterprise features for vmstorage
    image:
      # enterprise version of vmstorage
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmstorage enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true

      # using enterprise features: Downsampling
      # more details about downsampling you can read on https://docs.victoriametrics.com/Cluster-VictoriaMetrics.html#downsampling
      downsampling.period: 30d:5m,180d:1h,1y:6h,2y:1d

  # ...other fields...

Retention filters#

You can pass Retention filters flag to VMCluster/vmstorage with wextraArgs.

Here are complete example for Retention filters:

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-ent-example
spec:
  
  vmstorage:
    # enabling enterprise features for vmstorage
    image:
      # enterprise version of vmstorage
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmstorage enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true

      # using enterprise features: Retention filters
      # more details about retention filters you can read on https://docs.victoriametrics.com/Cluster-VictoriaMetrics.html#retention-filters
      retentionFilter: '{vm_account_id="5",env="dev"}:5d,{vm_account_id="5",env="prod"}:5y'

  # ...other fields...

Advanced per-tenant statistic#

For using Advanced per-tenant statistic you only need to enable Enterprise version of vmcluster components and operator will automatically create Scrape objects for cluster components.

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-ent-example
spec:
  
  vmselect:
    # enabling enterprise features for vmselect
    image:
      # enterprise version of vmselect
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmselect enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true
      
  vminsert:
    # enabling enterprise features for vminsert
    image:
      # enterprise version of vminsert
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vminsert enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true
      
  vmstorage:
    # enabling enterprise features for vmstorage
    image:
      # enterprise version of vmstorage
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmstorage enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true

  # ...other fields...

After that VMAgent will automatically scrape Advanced per-tenant statistic for cluster components.

mTLS protection#

You can pass mTLS protection flags to VMCluster/vmstorage, VMCluster/vmselect and VMCluster/vminsert with wextraArgs and mount secret files with extraVolumes and extraVolumeMounts fields.

Here are complete example for mTLS protection

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-ent-example
spec:
  
  vmselect:
    # enabling enterprise features for vmselect
    image:
      # enterprise version of vmselect
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmselect enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true
      
      # using enterprise features: mTLS protection
      # more details about mTLS protection you can read on https://docs.victoriametrics.com/Cluster-VictoriaMetrics.html#mtls-protection
      cluster.tls: true
      cluster.tlsCAFile: /etc/mtls/ca.crt
      cluster.tlsCertFile: /etc/mtls/vmselect.crt
      cluster.tlsKeyFile: /etc/mtls/vmselect.key
    extraVolumes:
      - name: mtls
        secret:
          secretName: mtls
    extraVolumeMounts:
      - name: mtls
        mountPath: /etc/mtls
      
  vminsert:
    # enabling enterprise features for vminsert
    image:
      # enterprise version of vminsert
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vminsert enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true

      # using enterprise features: mTLS protection
      # more details about mTLS protection you can read on https://docs.victoriametrics.com/Cluster-VictoriaMetrics.html#mtls-protection
      cluster.tls: true
      cluster.tlsCAFile: /etc/mtls/ca.crt
      cluster.tlsCertFile: /etc/mtls/vminsert.crt
      cluster.tlsKeyFile: /etc/mtls/vminsert.key
    extraVolumes:
      - name: mtls
        secret:
          secretName: mtls
    extraVolumeMounts:
      - name: mtls
        mountPath: /etc/mtls
      
  vmstorage:
    # enabling enterprise features for vmstorage
    image:
      # enterprise version of vmstorage
      tag: v1.93.5-enterprise-cluster
    env:
      - name: POD
        valueFrom:
          fieldRef:
            fieldPath: metadata.name
    extraArgs:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmstorage enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      eula: true

      # using enterprise features: mTLS protection
      # more details about mTLS protection you can read on https://docs.victoriametrics.com/Cluster-VictoriaMetrics.html#mtls-protection
      cluster.tls: true
      cluster.tlsCAFile: /etc/mtls/ca.crt
      cluster.tlsCertFile: /etc/mtls/$(POD).crt
      cluster.tlsKeyFile: /etc/mtls/$(POD).key
    extraVolumes:
      - name: mtls
        secret:
          secretName: mtls
    extraVolumeMounts:
      - name: mtls
        mountPath: /etc/mtls

  # ...other fields...

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: mtls
  namespace: default
stringData:
  ca.crt: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----    
  mtls-vmstorage-0.crt: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----    
  mtls-vmstorage-0.key: |
    -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
    ...
    -----END PRIVATE KEY-----    
  mtls-vmstorage-1.crt: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----    
  mtls-vmstorage-1.key: |
    -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
    ...
    -----END PRIVATE KEY-----    
  vminsert.crt: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----    
  vminsert.key: |
    -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
    ...
    -----END PRIVATE KEY-----    
  vmselect.crt: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----    
  vmselect.key: |
    -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
    ...
    -----END PRIVATE KEY-----    

Example commands for generating certificates you can read on this page.

Backup automation#

You can check vmbackupmanager documentation for backup automation. It contains a description of the service and its features. This section covers vmbackumanager integration in vmoperator.

VMCluster has built-in backup configuration, it uses vmbackupmanager - proprietary tool for backups. It supports incremental backups (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly) with popular object storages (aws s3, google cloud storage).

Here is a complete example for backup configuration:

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-ent-example
spec:

  vmstorage:
    vmBackup:
      # should be true and means that you have the legal right to run a vmstorage enterprise
      # that can either be a signed contract or an email with confirmation to run the service in a trial period
      # https://victoriametrics.com/legal/esa/
      acceptEULA: true

      # using enterprise features: Backup automation
      # more details about backup automation you can read on https://docs.victoriametrics.com/vmbackupmanager.html      
      destination: "s3://your_bucket/folder"
      credentialsSecret:
        name: remote-storage-keys
        key: credentials

  # ...other fields...

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: remote-storage-keys
type: Opaque
stringData:
  credentials: |-
    [default]
    aws_access_key_id = your_access_key_id
    aws_secret_access_key = your_secret_access_key    

NOTE: for cluster version operator adds suffix for destination: "s3://your_bucket/folder", it becomes "s3://your_bucket/folder/$(POD_NAME)". It’s needed to make consistent backups for each storage node.

You can read more about backup configuration options and mechanics here

Possible configuration options for backup crd can be found at link

Using VMBackupmanager for restoring backups in Kubernetes environment is described here.

Also see VMCLuster example spec here.

Examples#

Minimal example without persistence#

apiVersion: operator.victoriametrics.com/v1beta1
kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-example-minimal
spec:
  # ...
  retentionPeriod: "1"
  vmstorage:
    replicaCount: 2
  vmselect:
    replicaCount: 2
  vminsert:
    replicaCount: 2

With persistence#

kind: VMCluster
metadata:
  name: vmcluster-example-persistent
spec:
  # ...
  retentionPeriod: "4"
  replicationFactor: 2
  vmstorage:
    replicaCount: 2
    storageDataPath: "/vm-data"
    storage:
      volumeClaimTemplate:
        spec:
          storageClassName: standard
          resources:
            requests:
              storage: 10Gi
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: "0.5"
        memory: 500Mi
  vmselect:
    replicaCount: 2
    cacheMountPath: "/select-cache"
    storage:
      volumeClaimTemplate:
        spec:
          resources:
            requests:
              storage: 2Gi
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: "0.3"
        memory: "300Mi"
  vminsert:
    replicaCount: 2