vmgateway

vmgateway is a part of enterprise package. It is available for download and evaluation at releases page

vmgateway

vmgateway is a proxy for the VictoriaMetrics Time Series Database (TSDB). It provides the following features:

  • Rate Limiter
    • Based on cluster tenant's utilization, it supports multiple time interval limits for both the ingestion and retrieval of metrics
  • Token Access Control
    • Supports additional per-label access control for both the Single and Cluster versions of the VictoriaMetrics TSDB
    • Provides access by tenantID in the Cluster version
    • Allows for separate write/read/admin access to data

vmgateway is included in our enterprise packages.

Access Control

vmgateway-ac

vmgateway supports jwt based authentication. With jwt payload can be configured to give access to specific tenants and labels as well as to read/write.

jwt token must be in following format:

{
  "exp": 1617304574,
  "vm_access": {
      "tenant_id": {
        "account_id": 1,
        "project_id": 5
      },
      "extra_labels": {
         "team": "dev",
         "project": "mobile"
      },
      "extra_filters": ["{env=~\"prod|dev\",team!=\"test\"}"],
      "mode": 1
  }
}

Where:

  • exp - required, expire time in unix_timestamp. If the token expires then vmgateway rejects the request.
  • vm_access - required, dict with claim info, minimum form: {"vm_access": {"tenand_id": {}}
  • tenant_id - optional, for cluster mode, routes requests to the corresponding tenant.
  • extra_labels - optional, key-value pairs for label filters added to the ingested or selected metrics. Multiple filters are added with and operation. If defined, extra_label from original request removed.
  • extra_filters - optional, series selectors added to the select query requests. Multiple selectors are added with or operation. If defined, extra_filter from original request removed.
  • mode - optional, access mode for api - read, write, or full. Supported values: 0 - full (default value), 1 - read, 2 - write.

QuickStart

Start the single version of VictoriaMetrics

# single
# start node
./bin/victoria-metrics --selfScrapeInterval=10s

Start vmgateway

./bin/vmgateway -eula -enable.auth -read.url http://localhost:8428 --write.url http://localhost:8428

Retrieve data from the database

curl 'http://localhost:8431/api/v1/series/count' -H 'Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJ2bV9hY2Nlc3MiOnsidGVuYW50X2lkIjp7fSwicm9sZSI6MX0sImV4cCI6MTkzOTM0NjIxMH0.5WUxEfdcV9hKo4CtQdtuZYOGpGXWwaqM9VuVivMMrVg'

A request with an incorrect token or without any token will be rejected:

curl 'http://localhost:8431/api/v1/series/count'

curl 'http://localhost:8431/api/v1/series/count' -H 'Authorization: Bearer incorrect-token'

Rate Limiter

vmgateway-rl

Limits incoming requests by given, pre-configured limits. It supports read and write limiting by tenant.

vmgateway needs a datasource for rate limit queries. It can be either single-node or cluster version of victoria-metrics. The metrics that you want to rate limit must be scraped from the cluster.

List of supported limit types:

  • queries - count of api requests made at tenant to read the api, such as /api/v1/query, /api/v1/series and others.
  • active_series - count of current active series at any given tenant.
  • new_series - count of created series; aka churn rate
  • rows_inserted - count of inserted rows per tenant.

List of supported time windows:

  • minute
  • hour

Limits can be specified per tenant or at a global level if you omit project_id and account_id.

Example of configuration file:

limits:
  - type: queries
    value: 1000
    resolution: minute
  - type: queries
    value: 10000
    resolution: hour
  - type: queries
    value: 10
    resolution: minute
    project_id: 5
    account_id: 1

QuickStart

cluster version of VictoriaMetrics is required for rate limiting.

# start datasource for cluster metrics

cat << EOF > cluster.yaml
scrape_configs:
  - job_name: cluster
    scrape_interval: 5s
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['127.0.0.1:8481','127.0.0.1:8482','127.0.0.1:8480']
EOF

./bin/victoria-metrics --promscrape.config cluster.yaml

# start cluster

# start vmstorage, vmselect and vminsert
./bin/vmstorage -eula
./bin/vmselect -eula -storageNode 127.0.0.1:8401
./bin/vminsert -eula -storageNode 127.0.0.1:8400

# create base rate limitng config:
cat << EOF > limit.yaml
limits:
  - type: queries
    value: 100
  - type: rows_inserted
    value: 100000
  - type: new_series
    value: 1000
  - type: active_series
    value: 100000
  - type: queries
    value: 1
    account_id: 15
EOF

# start gateway with clusterMoe
./bin/vmgateway -eula -enable.rateLimit -ratelimit.config limit.yaml -datasource.url http://localhost:8428 -enable.auth -clusterMode -write.url=http://localhost:8480 --read.url=http://localhost:8481

# ingest simple metric to tenant 1:5
curl 'http://localhost:8431/api/v1/import/prometheus' -X POST  -d 'foo{bar="baz1"} 123' -H 'Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MjAxNjIwMDAwMDAsInZtX2FjY2VzcyI6eyJ0ZW5hbnRfaWQiOnsiYWNjb3VudF9pZCI6MTV9fX0.PB1_KXDKPUp-40pxOGk6lt_jt9Yq80PIMpWVJqSForQ'
# read metric from tenant 1:5
curl 'http://localhost:8431/api/v1/labels' -H 'Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJleHAiOjE2MjAxNjIwMDAwMDAsInZtX2FjY2VzcyI6eyJ0ZW5hbnRfaWQiOnsiYWNjb3VudF9pZCI6MTV9fX0.PB1_KXDKPUp-40pxOGk6lt_jt9Yq80PIMpWVJqSForQ'

# check rate limit

Configuration

The shortlist of configuration flags include the following:

  -auth.httpHeader
    HTTP header name to look for JWT authorization token
  -clusterMode
     enable this for the cluster version
  -datasource.appendTypePrefix
     Whether to add type prefix to -datasource.url based on the query type. Set to true if sending different query types to the vmselect URL.
  -datasource.basicAuth.password string
     Optional basic auth password for -datasource.url
  -datasource.basicAuth.passwordFile string
     Optional path to basic auth password to use for -datasource.url
  -datasource.basicAuth.username string
     Optional basic auth username for -datasource.url
  -datasource.bearerToken string
     Optional bearer auth token to use for -datasource.url.
  -datasource.bearerTokenFile string
     Optional path to bearer token file to use for -datasource.url.
  -datasource.disableKeepAlive
     Whether to disable long-lived connections to the datasource. If true, disables HTTP keep-alives and will only use the connection to the server for a single HTTP request.
  -datasource.headers string
     Optional HTTP extraHeaders to send with each request to the corresponding -datasource.url. For example, -datasource.headers='My-Auth:foobar' would send 'My-Auth: foobar' HTTP header with every request to the corresponding -datasource.url. Multiple headers must be delimited by '^^': -datasource.headers='header1:value1^^header2:value2'
  -datasource.lookback duration
     Lookback defines how far into the past to look when evaluating queries. For example, if the datasource.lookback=5m then param "time" with value now()-5m will be added to every query.
  -datasource.maxIdleConnections int
     Defines the number of idle (keep-alive connections) to each configured datasource. Consider setting this value equal to the value: groups_total * group.concurrency. Too low a value may result in a high number of sockets in TIME_WAIT state. (default 100)
  -datasource.oauth2.clientID string
     Optional OAuth2 clientID to use for -datasource.url.
  -datasource.oauth2.clientSecret string
     Optional OAuth2 clientSecret to use for -datasource.url.
  -datasource.oauth2.clientSecretFile string
     Optional OAuth2 clientSecretFile to use for -datasource.url.
  -datasource.oauth2.scopes string
     Optional OAuth2 scopes to use for -datasource.url. Scopes must be delimited by ';'
  -datasource.oauth2.tokenUrl string
     Optional OAuth2 tokenURL to use for -datasource.url.
  -datasource.queryStep duration
     queryStep defines how far a value can fallback to when evaluating queries. For example, if datasource.queryStep=15s then param "step" with value "15s" will be added to every query.If queryStep isn't specified, rule's evaluationInterval will be used instead.
  -datasource.queryTimeAlignment
     Whether to align "time" parameter with evaluation interval.Alignment supposed to produce deterministic results despite of number of vmalert replicas or time they were started. See more details here https://github.com/VictoriaMetrics/VictoriaMetrics/pull/1257 (default true)
  -datasource.roundDigits int
     Adds "round_digits" GET param to datasource requests. In VM "round_digits" limits the number of digits after the decimal point in response values.
  -datasource.showURL
     Whether to show -datasource.url in the exported metrics. It is hidden by default, since it can contain sensitive info such as auth key
  -datasource.tlsCAFile string
     Optional path to TLS CA file to use for verifying connections to -datasource.url. By default, system CA is used
  -datasource.tlsCertFile string
     Optional path to client-side TLS certificate file to use when connecting to -datasource.url
  -datasource.tlsInsecureSkipVerify
     Whether to skip tls verification when connecting to -datasource.url
  -datasource.tlsKeyFile string
     Optional path to client-side TLS certificate key to use when connecting to -datasource.url
  -datasource.tlsServerName string
     Optional TLS server name to use for connections to -datasource.url. By default, the server name from -datasource.url is used
  -datasource.url string
     Datasource compatible with Prometheus HTTP API. It can be single node VictoriaMetrics or vmselect URL. Required parameter. E.g. http://127.0.0.1:8428 . See also '-datasource.disablePathAppend', '-datasource.showURL'.
  -enable.auth
     enables auth with jwt token
  -enable.rateLimit
     enables rate limiter
  -enableTCP6
     Whether to enable IPv6 for listening and dialing. By default only IPv4 TCP and UDP is used
  -envflag.enable
     Whether to enable reading flags from environment variables additionally to command line. Command line flag values have priority over values from environment vars. Flags are read only from command line if this flag isn't set. See https://docs.victoriametrics.com/#environment-variables for more details
  -envflag.prefix string
     Prefix for environment variables if -envflag.enable is set
  -eula
     By specifying this flag, you confirm that you have an enterprise license and accept the EULA https://victoriametrics.com/assets/VM_EULA.pdf . This flag is available only in enterprise version of VictoriaMetrics
  -flagsAuthKey string
     Auth key for /flags endpoint. It must be passed via authKey query arg. It overrides httpAuth.* settings
  -fs.disableMmap
     Whether to use pread() instead of mmap() for reading data files. By default mmap() is used for 64-bit arches and pread() is used for 32-bit arches, since they cannot read data files bigger than 2^32 bytes in memory. mmap() is usually faster for reading small data chunks than pread()
  -http.connTimeout duration
     Incoming http connections are closed after the configured timeout. This may help to spread the incoming load among a cluster of services behind a load balancer. Please note that the real timeout may be bigger by up to 10% as a protection against the thundering herd problem (default 2m0s)
  -http.disableResponseCompression
     Disable compression of HTTP responses to save CPU resources. By default compression is enabled to save network bandwidth
  -http.idleConnTimeout duration
     Timeout for incoming idle http connections (default 1m0s)
  -http.maxGracefulShutdownDuration duration
     The maximum duration for a graceful shutdown of the HTTP server. A highly loaded server may require increased value for a graceful shutdown (default 7s)
  -http.pathPrefix string
     An optional prefix to add to all the paths handled by http server. For example, if '-http.pathPrefix=/foo/bar' is set, then all the http requests will be handled on '/foo/bar/*' paths. This may be useful for proxied requests. See https://www.robustperception.io/using-external-urls-and-proxies-with-prometheus
  -http.shutdownDelay duration
     Optional delay before http server shutdown. During this delay, the server returns non-OK responses from /health page, so load balancers can route new requests to other servers
  -httpAuth.password string
     Password for HTTP Basic Auth. The authentication is disabled if -httpAuth.username is empty
  -httpAuth.username string
     Username for HTTP Basic Auth. The authentication is disabled if empty. See also -httpAuth.password
  -httpListenAddr string
     TCP address to listen for http connections (default ":8431")
  -loggerDisableTimestamps
     Whether to disable writing timestamps in logs
  -loggerErrorsPerSecondLimit int
     Per-second limit on the number of ERROR messages. If more than the given number of errors are emitted per second, the remaining errors are suppressed. Zero values disable the rate limit
  -loggerFormat string
     Format for logs. Possible values: default, json (default "default")
  -loggerLevel string
     Minimum level of errors to log. Possible values: INFO, WARN, ERROR, FATAL, PANIC (default "INFO")
  -loggerOutput string
     Output for the logs. Supported values: stderr, stdout (default "stderr")
  -loggerTimezone string
     Timezone to use for timestamps in logs. Timezone must be a valid IANA Time Zone. For example: America/New_York, Europe/Berlin, Etc/GMT+3 or Local (default "UTC")
  -loggerWarnsPerSecondLimit int
     Per-second limit on the number of WARN messages. If more than the given number of warns are emitted per second, then the remaining warns are suppressed. Zero values disable the rate limit
  -memory.allowedBytes size
     Allowed size of system memory VictoriaMetrics caches may occupy. This option overrides -memory.allowedPercent if set to a non-zero value. Too low a value may increase the cache miss rate usually resulting in higher CPU and disk IO usage. Too high a value may evict too much data from OS page cache resulting in higher disk IO usage
     Supports the following optional suffixes for size values: KB, MB, GB, KiB, MiB, GiB (default 0)
  -memory.allowedPercent float
     Allowed percent of system memory VictoriaMetrics caches may occupy. See also -memory.allowedBytes. Too low a value may increase cache miss rate usually resulting in higher CPU and disk IO usage. Too high a value may evict too much data from OS page cache which will result in higher disk IO usage (default 60)
  -metricsAuthKey string
     Auth key for /metrics endpoint. It must be passed via authKey query arg. It overrides httpAuth.* settings
  -pprofAuthKey string
     Auth key for /debug/pprof/* endpoints. It must be passed via authKey query arg. It overrides httpAuth.* settings
  -pushmetrics.extraLabel array
     Optional labels to add to metrics pushed to -pushmetrics.url . For example, -pushmetrics.extraLabel='instance="foo"' adds instance="foo" label to all the metrics pushed to -pushmetrics.url
     Supports an array of values separated by comma or specified via multiple flags.
  -pushmetrics.interval duration
     Interval for pushing metrics to -pushmetrics.url (default 10s)
  -pushmetrics.url array
     Optional URL to push metrics exposed at /metrics page. See https://docs.victoriametrics.com/#push-metrics . By default metrics exposed at /metrics page aren't pushed to any remote storage
     Supports an array of values separated by comma or specified via multiple flags.
  -ratelimit.config string
     path for configuration file. Accepts url address
  -ratelimit.configCheckInterval duration
     interval for config file re-read. Zero value disables config re-reading. By default, refreshing is disabled, send SIGHUP for config refresh.
  -ratelimit.extraLabels array
     additional labels, that will be applied to fetchdata from datasource
     Supports an array of values separated by comma or specified via multiple flags.
  -ratelimit.refreshInterval duration
      (default 5s)
  -read.url string
     read access url address, example: http://vmselect:8481
  -remoteRead.disablePathAppend
     Whether to disable automatic appending of '/api/v1/query' path to the configured -datasource.url and -remoteRead.url
  -tls
     Whether to enable TLS for incoming HTTP requests at -httpListenAddr (aka https). -tlsCertFile and -tlsKeyFile must be set if -tls is set
  -tlsCertFile string
     Path to file with TLS certificate if -tls is set. Prefer ECDSA certs instead of RSA certs as RSA certs are slower. The provided certificate file is automatically re-read every second, so it can be dynamically updated
  -tlsCipherSuites array
     Optional list of TLS cipher suites for incoming requests over HTTPS if -tls is set. See the list of supported cipher suites at https://pkg.go.dev/crypto/tls#pkg-constants
     Supports an array of values separated by comma or specified via multiple flags.
  -tlsKeyFile string
     Path to file with TLS key if -tls is set. The provided key file is automatically re-read every second, so it can be dynamically updated
  -tlsMinVersion string
     Optional minimum TLS version to use for incoming requests over HTTPS if -tls is set. Supported values: TLS10, TLS11, TLS12, TLS13
  -version
     Show VictoriaMetrics version
  -write.url string
     write access url address, example: http://vminsert:8480

TroubleShooting

  • Access control:
  • Rate Limiting:
    • scrape_interval at datasource, reduce it to apply limits faster.

Limitations

  • Access Control:
    • jwt token must be validated by external system, currently vmgateway can't validate the signature.
  • RateLimiting:
    • limits applied based on queries to datasource.url
    • only cluster version can be rate-limited.